all of English literature, perhaps the most dramatic and
devastating argument against prejudice is that given by Shylock
in The Merchant of Venice. Substituting 'human foetus'
for 'Jew' and 'adult' for 'Christian', we can use Shylock's
argument to defend the human unborn against his detractors — the
merchants of calumny.
... I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes? hath not a Jew hands, organs,
dimensions, senses, affections, passions? fed with the same food,
hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by
the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer, as
a Christian is? If you prick us, do we not bleed? if you tickle us,
do we not laugh? if you poison us, do we not die? and if you wrong
us, shall we not revenge? if we are like you in the rest, we will
resemble you in that.1
There can be no retort to Shylock's statement. One must either recognize
the facts and agree that Shylock is human and deserving of treatment
equal to Christians, or ignore the facts and walk away. The Jew's
self-defense is too fundamental to be undercut. He wisely avoids
sophisticated reasons, academic distinctions, and intellectual
subtleties that could render his argument suspect, weak, or unclear. His
self-defense is really a self-description and in describing the
elementary fact he makes his case irrefutable.
Taking the fundamental and forthright approach of Shylock, can we raise
a convincing argument in defense of the humanity of the human foetus and
his right to equal protection to that of adults? Substituting 'human
foetus' for 'Jew' and 'adult' for 'Christian', can we use Shylock's
argument to defend the human unborn against his detractors — the
merchants of calumny?
"I am a
In his article "The Humanity of the Unborn Child," pediatrician
Eugene Diamond writes:
To consider the fetus not to be a separate person but merely a
part of the mother has not been tenable since the sixteenth
century when Arantius showed that the maternal and fetal
circulations were separate — neither continuous nor contiguous.2
Medical evidence3 is contrary to the unscientific views
of Justice Holmes, who once declared that the unborn child is "a
part of its mother."4 It shows conclusively that the
foetus is a human being in its own right "with its separate
principle of growth and development, with its separate nervous
system and blood circulation, with its own skeleton and musculature,
its brain and heart and vital organs."5
Genetics clearly establishes the human foetus as a member of the
human race by recognizing that his 23 pairs of chromosomes per
somatic cell are derived equally from a human mother and a human
father. Fetology establishes the selfhood of the human foetus by
tracing his growth and development from a single cell which belongs
neither to mother nor father. Dr. H. M. I. Liley writes:
He (the unborn baby) has his own space capsule, the amniotic
sac. He has his own lifeline, the umbilical cord, and he has his
own root system, the placenta. These all belong to the baby
himself, not to his mother. They are all developed from his
The selfhood of the human foetus is further corroborated by
electrocardiographic (ECG) readings of his heart beat at 7 1/2 weeks7
and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of his brain waves at 6
not a human foetus eyes?
His eyes begin to form at 19 days. By 8 ½ weeks the eyelids become
sensitive to touch. If the eyelid is stroked, the child will squint.9
Rugh and Shettles describe the foetus after 8 weeks as having "a
human face with eyelids half closed as they are in someone who is
about to fall asleep."10 During the fifth month the hair
of his eyebrows begins to grow and a fringe of eyelashes appears.
In the sixth month his eyelids will open and close. His eyes will
look up, down, and sideways. The iris diaphragm will contract or
dilate to admit the proper light intensity. Dr. Albert Liley
contends that the child may perceive light through the abdominal
wall of his mother.11
not a human foetus hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections,
The hands, with fingers and thumbs, are recognizable by the seventh
week of fetal life.12 The lines in the hands (and feet),
which will remain a distinctive feature throughout the life of the
individual, are engraved at 8 weeks.13 At 81/2 weeks the
palms of the hands become sensitive to touch. If the palm of the
foetus is touched, his fingers will close to a small fist.14
The child's grip at 16 weeks is quite strong. At this time he is
able to maintain his grasp on an object, such as a slender rod,
while that object is being moved up and down or slightly away from
All the organ systems are present in the human foetus by 8 weeks.16
In the ninth and tenth weeks, if the child's forehead is touched, he
may turn his head away from the stimulus and pucker up his brow and
frown. By the twelfth week, his organs, dimensions, senses,
affections, and passions are present and operative.
By the end of the first trimester (twelfth week), the fetus is a
sentient moving being. We need not pause to speculate as to the
nature of his psychic attributes but we may assume that the
organization of psycho-somatic self is now well underway.17
with the same food,
In Shakespearian England, as scholars have pointed out, the
segregated Jew did not dine in the company of the Christian.
Moreover, in accordance with his Jewish tradition, his diet was
markedly different from that of the Christian. The human foetus and
his mother, on the other hand, are quite literally fed with the same
The taste buds and the salivary and digestive glands develop in the
foetus during the third month. At this time the baby is able to
swallow and utilize amniotic fluid.18 Although the blood
of the mother and her child do not mix during foetal development,
the child receives oxygen and food from his mother through placental
attachment, "much as he receives food from her after he is born."19
When a child in utero fails
to receive adequate nourishment, it is possible to correct this
problem by injecting supplementary nutrients directly into the
amniotic fluid which he normally swallows in the amount of 250-700
cc a day. One doctor states, "We well may be able to offer the child
that is starving because of a placental defect a nipple to use
with the same weapons,
In an early 1972 interview, a California doctor who performed
abortions was asked: "Doctor, what does the aborted baby feel while
it's dying?" The doctor answered, "Oh, I think that depends on your
philosophy." Furthermore, he stated that the question was not an
To Dr. Albert W. Liley, pre-eminent fetologist of New Zealand, the
crucially important question of foetal pain can be answered on the
basis of objective evidence. In 1963 Dr. Liley developed the first
surgical technique for administering intrauterine blood transfusions
to the foetus.22 According to Dr. Liley, the foetus feels
pain as early as three months. In offering instructions for carrying
out the surgical technique of foetal blood transfusions, he advises
his colleagues to take into serious consideration this fact of
foetal pain. During the actual surgical procedure the child must be
sedated and given pain-relieving medication. Dr. H.M.I. Liley, wife
and research assistant to Dr. Albert Liley and a distinguished
fetologist and pediatrician in her own right, remarks in her
well-known book Modern Motherhood:
When doctors first began invading the sanctuary of the womb,
they did not know that the unborn baby would react to pain in
the same fashion as a child would. But they soon learned that he
would. By no means a 'vegetable' as he has so often been
pictured, the unborn knows perfectly well when he has been hurt,
and he will protest it just as violently as would a baby lying
in a crib.23
In reference to aborting a 12-week-old foetus by the method of
dilatation and curettage (D & C, in which the neck of the womb is
dilated and the foetus removed in pieces after the womb has been
scraped by a sharp instrument called a curette), Dr. Eugene Diamond
When this procedure is done, there is little doubt that the
foetus, in fact, feels what is done to it.24
In the words of physician Gino Papola, "The curette will become
mightier than the sword."25
The weaponry used against the unborn — curette, suction, and salt,
together with the starvation and suffocation which follow a
hysterotomy — is fatal for physiological reasons alone. If an adult
were similarly assaulted, he would succumb for the same medical
reasons as does the aborted foetus.
subject to the same diseases,
Dr. H.M.I. Liley writes:
No problem in fetal health or disease can any longer be
considered in isolation. At the very least two people are
involved, the mother and her child.26
The most convenient way in which the physician may diagnose the
condition of the foetus is from an analysis of the amniotic fluid
which surrounds the unborn child. In observing the color, turbidity
and volume of the amniotic fluid, or the enzymes and other chemicals
contained therein, he is able to diagnose a long list of foetal
diseases.27 In addition, the electrocardiogram of the
unborn and the analysis of his heart sounds through
phonocardiography is helpful to the diagnostician.
In Ashley Montagu's book, Life
before Birth, the author lists some of the diseases which may
afflict the unborn child. The list includes pneumonia, scarlet
fever, typhoid, streptococcal infections, rheumatic fever,
listeriosis, syphilis, malaria, virus diseases, tuberculosis, viral
hepatitis, and others. All these diseases can be transmitted from
the pregnant mother to her unborn child.28
by the same means,
Dr. Liley's technique of intrauterine blood transfusion has been
mentioned. Perhaps the most famous case involving a blood
transfusion given to the unborn foetus occurred in 1964. Because of
certain religious beliefs, a pregnant woman refused to allow her
unborn to undergo a blood transfusion. The child, because of an Rh
problem in his blood, vitally needed this particular operation. The
case went to court. The judge ruled that the unborn's right to
survival was a value which out-weighed the mother's right to
practice her religious beliefs in this manner.29
Analysis of the amniotic fluid surrounding the unborn has led to
diagnoses of the adrenogenital syndrome, hemolytic anemia, adrenal
insufficiency, congenital hyperuricemia, and glycogen storage
disease. Some of these maladies can now be treated before birth;30
it is expected that someday all of them can be.
There are ways in which nature heals an injured foetus without
medical assistance. If the child sustains a fractured limb when his
mother falls, the limb will heal naturally. Even a gunshot wound
(incurred at three months) will heal naturally, and only a scar will
remain at the time of birth.31
and cooled by the same winter and summer as an adult is?
The unborn is directly affected by temperature extremes, or changes.32
When the body is colder than normal, the brain needs less oxygen
than normal, because metabolism is retarded and oxygen is circulated
in the blood stream at a slower rate. When a patient faces a lengthy
operation, it is sometimes medically expedient to cool his body so
as to prevent possibly harmful effects to the brain from large doses
Drs. F. Wilson and C.B. Sedzmir have reported the case of a woman,
32 weeks pregnant, who had been cooled in preparation for surgery,
As her body temperature was being reduced, the heartbeat of her
unborn child dropped from 160 to 85 beats per minute. Furthermore,
when trimethaphan was injected into the woman to provide a
relatively bloodless field for surgery, the foetus protested by
kicking rather furiously. The doctors conjectured that the kicking
was brought on by anoxia (lack of oxygen) induced in the child by
the drug injection. In another case, a patient's temperature was
cooled to 86 degrees F. prior to her operation. At the same time her
24-week unborn child's hearbeat fell from 180 beats per minute to
120.33 In both cases, after the mother's temperature had
returned to normal, the child's metabolic and circulatory rates
likewise returned to normal.
... If you
prick us do we not bleed?
Blood cells begin to appear at about 17 days. The heart commences
development at 18 days, and although this figure is given as the
normal time for such development, Marcel and Exchaquet attest to
observing contractions of the heart as early as two weeks.34
At 30 days the heart is beating regularly 65 times a minute35
and pumping blood cells through a closed circulatory system.36
At 51/2 weeks it is functionally complete and, in general
configuration, is essentially similar to that of an adult heart.37
By the seventh week of life, the liver is manufacturing red blood
cells and the kidney is eliminating uric acid from the blood.38
Straus et al. have shown that the electrocardiogram of a 71/2 week
foetus demonstrates the existence of a functionally complete cardiac
The blood which the unborn sheds in abortion is his own, its type
(antigens and antibodies) having been determined genetically at
... If you
tickle us do we not laugh?
Doctor Andre Hellegers writes:
If we tickle the baby's nose, he will flex his head backwards
away from the stimulus.40
About the end of the twelfth week the vocal cords of the unborn are
completed. The child, however, is unable to cry (or laugh),
primarily because his voice cannot be activated in the absence of
Dr. H.M.I. Liley relates an incident which occurred after an air
bubble had been injected into an 8-month unborn baby's amniotic sac
for the purpose of locating the placenta on x-ray. When the air
bubble happened to cover the child's face, the child inhaled,
allowing his vocal cords to become operative, and produced a cry
which was clearly audible to all those present, including the
physician and the technical assistants. The mother later reported to
the doctor that the air bubble kept moving over the baby's face
whenever she lay down to sleep, allowing the child to cry so loudly
that both she and her husband were kept awake.42
... if you
poison us do we not die?
Dr. Paul Marx describes abortion induced by saline poisoning:
Then a long needle is skillfully used to puncture the abdomen
and uterus — skillfully, because the doctor may hit the brain or
body of the baby and draw blood whereas he wishes to withdraw a
considerable amount of amniotic fluid. When the fluid has been
withdrawn, the abortionist next infuses in its place an equal
volume of hypertonic saline, a strong, sterile, salt-water
solution which, in effect, pickles the baby alive. He may thrash
about for some time but soon becomes still in death. The mother
will to into labor and deliver her dead child, on the average,
about twenty-four hours after amnio-infusion, though the period
may range from three hours to three days — or even several
There is scientific evidence that the unborn child is as suscentible
to poisoning as the rest of the population is.44 Lead,
mercury, arsenic, copper, phosphorous, bromide, iodide, potassium
chlorate, and strontium are just a few of the many inorganic poisons
which can reach the child through his mother's body.45
Dr. P. Bernhard in 1949 and Dr. J.M. O'Lane and Dr. J.R. Zabriskie
in 1963 found, as as result of their extensive studies, a strong
index of correlation between smoking during pregnancy and
spontaneous abortion and prematurity46 (prematurity is
the leading cause of death in early infancy).47
... and if
you wrong us, shall we not revenge? if we are like you in the rest,
we will resemble you in that."
It is written in the Talmud that, "Whosoever sheds the blood of man
within man, his blood shall be shed.”48
Professor Ian Donald of Glasgow University, referring to the deaths
of 15 mothers as a result of the 20,000 legal abortions in England
in 1969, states:
We can look forward to this (legal abortion) being the dominant
cause of death to young women.49
The Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, in Abortion Act
(1967), a inquiry into the effects of the first year of England's
permissive law, states:
Eight maternal deaths occurred in relation to 27,331
terminations of pregnancy during the year 1968-9. This gives a
mortality rate of 0.3 per thousand, which is higher than the
maternal mortality rate (including abortions, criminal or
otherwise) for all pregnancies in England and Wales at the
comparable time. A statement issued by the Secretary of State to
Parliament on 4 February 1970 reveals a similar state of affairs
in respect of about 54,000 induced abortions notified from all
sources during 1969; among these there were 15 maternal deaths.50
In a documented report prepared in January 1971, for presentation
before the Minnesota State Legislature, legal-abortion mortality
rates were compared to the maternal mortality rates per births. The
maternal mortality rate for the state of Minnesota was established
by Rosenfield et al.51 at 14 per 100,000 live births. In
countries having a history of legal abortions, the maternal
mortality rate was 66 per 100,000 legal abortions in Finland, 41.4
in Denmark, 39.2 in Sweden, and 39.2 in Great Britain.52
On the basis of the mortality rates for mothers undergoing legal
abortions in various countries, the following conclusion was reached
by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology:
The inherent risks of a therapeutic abortion are serious and may
be life-threatening; this fact should be fully appreciated by
both the medical profession and the public. In nations where
abortion may be obtained on demand, a considerable morbidity and
mortality have reported.53
Apart from mortality figures, non-fatal medical complications
(morbidity) arising from induced abortions have been documented,
indicating the grave risks to health and fertility a woman assumes
in undergoing an abortion.
Dr. Stallworthy et al. reported a survey of 1,182 legal abortions in
one teaching hospital in England. The report showed that nearly 17%
of the patients lost more than 500 ml. of blood and 9.5% required
transfusion. In addition, cervical lacerations occurred in 4.2%, and
the uterus was perforated in 1.2%. Emergency laparotomy was required
6 times and hysterectomy was twice necessary to save life. In 27% of
the patients pyrexia (high fever) of 38'C or more persisted for
longer than 24 hours. Fourteen patients suffered peritonitis.54
"It is disquieting," wrote the doctors, "that postabortal infection,
which is one of the common causes of death after criminal abortion,
should have occurred in 27% of this series."55
The Stallworthy report was especially disturbing since it showed
almost identical results with those reported by Sood.56
Dr. Droegemuller, reporting on Colorado's first-year experience with
legal abortion, reported that 8 out of every 100 women required
blood transfusions after being aborted.57
The incidence of major hemorrhaging following legal abortion was
reported in Russia as 14.2%58 (D & Q, Great Britain 21%59
(all methods of inducing abortion, and Sweden 3 to 7.8% (saline).
In Japan, the 1969 survey of the office of the Prime Minister
reported the following complications resulting from induced
abortion: 9% sterility after three years, 14% habitual spontaneous
abortion, 4% extra-uterine pregnancies, 17% menstrual
irregularities, 20% abdominal pains, 19% dizziness, 27% headache, 3%
frigidity, 13% exhaustion, and 3% neurosis.61
The Nagoya survey by the Women's Associations reported 59% were
severely troubled with adverse after-effects or were in poorer
health following abortions. In the Mainichi survey in 1969, 18%
complained of being physically unwell after one abortion; 27% after
two, 40% after three, and 51% after four.62
The Swedish experience with legal abortion is well documented.
Perhaps the most thorough follow-up study has been done by Dr.
Martin Ekblad. Dr. Ekblad studied 479 women at the time of their
abortion and again 2-31/2 years later. He found that 10% felt the
operation unpleasant, 14% had mild self-reproach, 11% suffered
serious self-reproach and self-regret, and 1% had gross psychiatric
A study in Poland has shown a 14% decrease in sexual libido 4 to 5
years after abortion;64 while the Czechs have reported
decrease in libido in 33% of patients 9 months after the abortion.65
It has been said that, "You can drag a baby out of the uterus but
you cannot wipe it out of the mind."66 According to
certain psychologists and psychiatrists, the feminine principle is
one of receiving, keeping, and nourishing.67 Although the
pregnant woman may initially deny her unborn child, once she admits
she is pregnant (and she must do this to undergo an abortion) she
feels an unconscious attachment to him. Because of this, many women
feel that part of themselves is lost through abortion.68
The psychiatrist Karl Stem states that it is not infrequent that
women who have had abortions break down with a serious depression or
even psychosis when the time arrives when they would have given
birth to their child. What is remarkable about this, notes Stem, is
that the patient may very well be unaware of the due date, or even
indifferent to the moral dimension of abortion. Her profound
reaction of loss is a natural reaction to the birth which did not
A world Health Organization group of scientists have concluded that:
There is not doubt that the termination of pregnancy may
precipitate a serious psychoneurotic or even psychotic reaction
in a susceptible individual.70
Apart from the death brought to the unborn, and the mortality or
morbidity suffered by the mother as a result of abortion, there are
also serious dangers to subsequent children of aborted mothers.
Fourteen years after legalizing abortion, Hungary reported a 5%
increase in premature babies.71 In addition, because of
birth injury, post-natal asphyxia, and atelectasis (collapsing of
the lungs) which are leading causes of death in premature infants,
Hungary's infancy mortality rate was 1,278.2 per 100,000 live births
compared to 549.4 per 100,000 for the U.S.72 Following
legalized abortion on request, the perinatal mortality rate in
The frequency of spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) in women who
have undergone legal abortions has been reported as 30 to 40% higher
than in cases where women had not been aborted.73
Furthermore, the incidence of foetal death during pregnancy is twice
as great for a woman who has had an abortion compared to those who
have not.74 Dr. Demetrios Kelaris, whom U.S. Air Force
officials in Athens have described as the best obstetrician and
gynecologist in Greece, says that one of his country's biggest
gynecological and obstetrical problems is women's inability to
retain pregnancies because of previous and sometimes multiple
Findings such as these have led one authority to conclude:
Induced abortion plays an important role in the development of a
subsequent child ... the impact of premature birth on infant
mortality and of the mental and physical development of the
child is connected with the frequency of abortions.76
Dr. Alfred Kotasek of Czechoslovakia corroborates this conclusion:
Furthermore, as noticed recently, a high incidence of cervical
incompetence results from interruption of pregnancy that raises
the number of spontaneous abortions to 30-40%. These legal
abortions affect subsequent pregnancies and births. We rather
often observe complications such as rigidity of the os, placenta
adherens, placenta accreta, and atony of the uterus.77
Professional -researchers Margaret and Arthur Wynn draw a similar
The complications of subsequent pregnancy resulting in children
being born handicapped in greater or less degree could be the
most expensive consequence of induced abortion for society and
most grievous for the individual and her family.
... The number of abortions aimed at reducing the number of
handicapped children is, however, very small compared with the
number of abortions liable to increase the prevalence of
Just as Shylock, the Jew, cannot be discriminated against with
impunity, the human foetus cannot be aborted without grave
consequences to his mother, her future progeny, the medical
profession, and the rest of society. The merchants of claumny who
banalize the human foetus and suppress information about the medical
risks of abortion are bargaining for their own pound of flesh.
Some people strongly desire to believe that the human foetus is not
human and that abortion does not give rise to frequent and serious
complications. They prefer that the world they want to exist should
serve them rather than that they themselves should serve the world that
does exist. They make their own desires the object of their faith and
thus become incredulous of the truths which conflict with these desires.
The punishment for such egoism is blindness.
Perhaps the essence of prejudice is the fear of accepting what is
different. But prejudice against the human foetus takes an ironic twist.
We all contain the unborn. We are the unborn. The abortionist is the
inverse of Narcissus. He hates his own repeated image. He has no memory.
He has no ontogeny. The human foetus tells him how small he must be. In
rejecting his own smallness, he lashes out against the unborn. The
essential paradox of man is that to accept one's smallness requires
In accepting his smallness, his finitude, his fallibility, man honors a
truth and thereby acknowledges the universe. When he insists upon his
own perfection, emancipated forever from any attachment or resemblance
to the humble foetus, he confesses his vanity.
Inseparable from a fear of finitude is a fear of death. If man grows
from a single cell, what fortress in this world can ever be a safeguard
against his destruction? If man's life beings in the shadow of
nothingness, that shadow must remain to lurk behind his every heartbeat.
As he came forth from his mother's womb, so again shall he depart,
naked as he came, having nothing from his labor that he can carry in
Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice. Act III, Scene i.
Eugene Diamond, "The Humanity of the Unborn." Catholic
Lawyer. Spring, 1971, p. 174. Dietrich v. Northhampton. 138
Mass. 14, 52 Am. Rep. 242 (1884).
That is to say the current findings in embryology, fetology,
perinatology, and all of the biology.
David Granfield, The Abortion Decision. Doubleday,
1971, p. 23.
Day & Liley, The Secret World of a Baby. Random House,
Reuben Straus et al., "Direct Electroencephalographic Recording
of a Twenty-Three Millimeter Human Embryo," The American Journal
of Cardiology." Sept. 1961, pp. 443-47.
J.W. Still, Washington Acad. Sci. 59:46,1969.
Davenport Hooker, The Prenatal Origin of Behavior, Univ. of
Kansas Press, 1952. G.L. Flanagan, The First Nine Months of Life.
Simon & Schuster, 1962.
Robert Rugh & Landrum Shettles with R.E. Einhom. From
Conception to Birth: The Drama of Life's Beginnings. Harper &
Row, 1971, p. 71.
Albert W. Liley, "Auckland MD to Measure Light and Sound Inside
Uterus," Medical Tribune Report, May 26, 1969. Bradley,
Human Embryology. Third Edition. Ch. 9. McGraw-Hill, 1968
Arnold Gesell The Embryology of Behavior Chs. 5-6, 10.
Harper & Row, 1945.
Davenport Hooker, "Early Human Fetal Behavior with a Preliminary
Note on Double Simultaneous Fetal Stimulation." Proceedings of
the Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease.
Williams & Wilkins, 1954.
Cf. photograph in G.L. Flanagan, op. cit. p. 98. (Photograph by
the courtesy of Hooker & Humphrey).
Dr. & Mrs. J.C. Willke, Handbook on Abortion, Hiltz,
1971, p. 21.
Arnold Gesell, op. cit. p. 65.
Carl Wood, "Weightlessness: Its Implications for the Human
Fetus." J. Obstetrics & Gynecology of the British Commonwealth.
Vol. 77, 1970, pp. 333-6.
Amicus Curiae Brief of Some 220 Physicians, Professors and
Fellows of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Before the U.S. Supreme Court in Texas and Georgia Cases. Oct. term,
Rafael Sevilla, "Oral Feeding of Human Fetus: A Possibility."
JAMA. May 4,1970, pp. 713-17.
Interview between Mike Levy and Dr. Ballard, Triumph.
March, 1972. pp. 20-23, 44.
Valerie Vance Dillon, "Application for Life." Sign.
Oct. 1968, p. 12.
Dr. H.M.I. Liley, Modern Motherhood, Revised Edition.
Random House. 1969, p. 50.
E. Diamond, op. cit. p. 175.
Gino Papola, MD, "Abortion Today: A Doctor looks at a modem
problem." L'Osservatore Romano, March 23, '72, p. 10.
H.M.I. Liley, op. cit. p. 207.
E. Horger & D. Hutchinson M.D., "Diagnostic Use of Amniotic
Fluid." J. of Pediatrics Vol. 74, No. 3, Sept. 1969, pp.
503-508. W. Floyd, M.D., P. Goodman, & P. Wilson, "CT: Amniotic
Fluid Filtration and Cytology." Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Vol. 34, No. 4, Oct. 1969. Szijarto, "Modem Diagnostic Criteria of
Fetal Suffering." Fracestoro, Vol. 61, Nov. — Dec. 1968. Parmley et
al., "Fetal Maturity and Amniotic Fluid Analysis." Am. J.
Obstet. & Gynec. Vol. 105, No. 3, pp. 354-362.
Ashley Montagu, Life before Birth. New American
Library, 1964, Ch. X.
Raleigh Fitkin-Paul Morgan Memorial Hospital v. Anderson, 42
N.J. 421, 201 A. 2d 537, cert denied, 377 U.S. 985 (1964).
Peter Berman et al., "A Method for the Prenatal Diagnosis of
Congenital Hyperuricemia." J. of Pediatrics. Vol. 75, No. 3, Sept.
'69. N. O'Doherty, "THe Prenatal Treatment of Adrenal
Insufficiency." The Lancet, No. 29, '69, 2:1194-95. A. Hodari & T.
Loma, "Experimental Surgical Procedures Upon the Fetus in Obstetric
Research." Obstet. & Gynec. Vol. 34, No. 2, Aug..69, pp.
Dillon, op. cit. p. 10.
Montagu, op. cit. pp. 187-8.
Ibid. p. 178.
M. Marcel & J. Exchaquet, "L'Electrocardiogramme du Foetus Human
Avec un Cas de Double Rythme Auriculaire Veriflem," Arch. Mal.
Couer. Paris 31: 504, 1938.
Flanagan, op. cit. p. 51.
Leslie Arey, Developmental Anatomy, 6th edition.
Saunders Co. 1954, Chs. II, VI.
Marcel et al. op. cit.
Gesell, op. cit.
Straus et al., op. cit.
A. Hellegers, "Fetal Development." Theological Studies.
3, 7, 1970, p. 26.
H.M.I. Liley, op. cit. B. Patten, op. cit.
Liley, op. cit. p, 50. Hooker, op. cit. p. 75.
Paul Marx, Ph.D., The Death Peddlers. St. John's U.
Press. 1971, p. 24.
Montagu, op. cit. p. 186.
Ibid. "Tobacco Smoke and Other Poisons." p. 99.
Ibid. p. 97.
Cf. Willke, op. cit. p. 72. Cf. also A.J. Schaeffer, Diseases of
the Newborn. Saunders, 1966. ". . premature birth is the leading
cause of infant death, and one of the leading causes of mental and
Quoted by Rabbi Karasich in Papola op. cit. p. 10 under "Jewish
Comments". This remark has been traditionally interpreted as
constituting a commandment against killing the unborn child.
Dr. Ian Donald, The Scotsman. March 9, 1970.
"The Abortion Act (1967)," British Medical Journal, 30
May, 1970, p. 533.
A.B. Rosenfield et al., "Recent Trends in Infant and Maternal
Health in Minnesota," Minn. Med. 53:807-16,1970.
Thomas Hilgers, M.D. & Robert Shearin, M.D., "Medical
Complications of Induced Abortion." Induced Abortion: A
Documented Report. Jan. 1971, p. 24.
Drs. Gardiner, Pisani & Mattingly, College Statement and
Minority Report on Therapeutic Abortion, issued by the Am.
College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chicago, May 1, 1969.
J.A. Stallworthy, A.S. Moolgaoker, J.J. Walsh, "Legal Abortion:
A Critical Assessment of its Risks," The Lancet. Dec. 4,
1971, pp. 1245-49.
Ibid. p. 1248.
S.V. Sood, Br. Med. J. 1971, iv, 270.
W. Droegemuller et al., "The First Year of Experience in
Colorado with the New Abortion Law." Am. J. Obstet. & Gynec.
103:694-698, March '69.
A.M. Lekhter, "Experience in the Study of the Sequelae to
Abortions." Sovet. Zdravookhr. 25:27, 1966.
L.O. Courtney, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 62:834, 1969.
L.P. Bengtsson et al. "Legal Abortion Induced by Intrauterine
injections." (parts I & II) Lakartidninger, 64:5037, &
Dr. Paul Popenoe, "Abortion in Japan." Catholic Digest
(Condensed from Family Life) Sept. 1971, p. 28.
M. Ekblad, "Induced Abortion on Psychiatric Grounds, A FollowUp
Study of 479 Women." Acta. Psychiat. Neurol. Scand. Suppl.
E. Midak, "Early and Late Sequelae of Abortion." Pol. Tyg.
Lek. 21:1063, 1966.
J. Cepelak et al. "Influence of Interruption of Pregnancy on the
Sexual Life of the Woman." Cesk Gynaek. 25:609, 1960.
Quoted by Dr. Paul Marx, O.S.B., "What Sisters Should Know About
Abortion." Sisters Today. 1972, p. 527.
Helene Deutsch, The Psychology of Women; A Psychoanalytic
Interpretation. Grune & Stratton, 1945. Karl Stem, The
Flight from Woman. Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1965, pp. 21-23.
R. Le Roux (moderator), "Abortion". Am.J. Nursing.
Stem, op. cit. pp. 22-23.
"Spontaneous Induced Abortion," report of a World Health
Organization scientific group. World Health Organization
Technical Report Series, No. 461, p. 41.
A. Klinger, "Demographic Consequences of the Legalization of
Induced Abortion in Eastern Europe." Int. J. Gynec. & Obst.
8:680691, Sept. 1970, p. 691.
World Health Statistics Report, Vol. 23, No. 7 pp.
M. Kuck, "Abortion in Czechoslovakia." Pro. Roy. Soc. Med.
World Health Statistics Report, op. cit.
Dr. P. Marx, op. cit.
A. Klinger, op. cit.
Kotasek, "Artificial Termination of Pregnancy in
Czechoslovakia." International Journal of Gynecology and
Obstetrics. Vol 9. Number 3,1971.
M. and A. Wynn, "Some consequences of Induced Abortion to
Children bom Subsequently." Foundation for Education and
Research in Child-bearing. London, 1972, p. 12.
Donald. "The Merchants of Calumny." Abortion in Perspective. (Cincinatti:
Reprinted with permission of Donald DeMarco.
DeMarco is Professor at Holy Apostles College and Seminary in Cromwell,
CT and Professor Emeritus at St. Jerome's University in Waterloo
Ontario. He has written hundreds of articles for various scholarly and
popular journals, and is the author of twenty books, including
The Heart of Virtue,
The Many Faces of Virtue, Virtue's Alphabet: From Amiability
to Zeal and
Architects Of The Culture Of Death. Donald DeMarco is on the
Advisory Board of The Catholic Educator's Resource Center.