Transcript of Treaty
of Fort Laramie (1868)
A TREATY MADE AND CONCLUDED BY AND BETWEEN
General William T. Sherman, General William S. Harney, General
Alfred H. Terry, General O. O. Augur, J. B. Henderson, Nathaniel G.
Taylor, John G. Sanborn, and Samuel F. Tappan, duly appointed
commissioners on the part of the United States, and the different
bands of the Sioux Nation of Indians, by their chiefs and headmen,
whose names are hereto subscribed, they being duly authorized to act
in the premises.
From this day forward all war between the parties to this agreement
shall for ever cease. The government of the United States desires
peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians
desire peace, and they now pledge their honor to maintain it.
If bad men
among the whites, or among other people subject to the authority of
the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the person or
property of the Indians, the United States will, upon proof made to
the agent, and forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at
Washington city, proceed at once to cause the offender to be
arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States,
and also reimburse the injured person for the loss sustained.
If bad men
among the Indians shall commit a wrong or depredation upon the
person or property of nay one, white, black, or Indian, subject to
the authority of the United States, and at peace therewith, the
Indians herein named solemnly agree that they will, upon proof made
to their agent, and notice by him, deliver up the wrongdoer to the
United States, to be tried and punished according to its laws, and,
in case they willfully refuse so to do, the person injured shall be
reimbursed for his loss from the annuities, or other moneys due or
to become due to them under this or other treaties made with the
United States; and the President, on advising with the Commissioner
of Indian Affairs, shall prescribe such rules and regulations for
ascertaining damages under the provisions of this article as in his
judgment may be proper, but no one sustaining loss while violating
the provisions of this treaty, or the laws of the United States,
shall be reimbursed therefor.
The United States agrees that the following district of country, to
wit, viz: commencing on the east bank of the Missouri river where
the 46th parallel of north latitude crosses the same, thence along
low-water mark down said east bank to a point opposite where the
northern line of the State of Nebraska strikes the river, thence
west across said river, and along the northern line of Nebraska to
the 104th degree of longitude west from Greenwich, thence north on
said meridian to a point where the 46th parallel of north latitude
intercepts the same, thence due east along said parallel to the
place of beginning; and in addition thereto, all existing
reservations of the east back of said river, shall be and the same
is, set apart for the absolute and undisturbed use and occupation of
the Indians herein named, and for such other friendly tribes or
individual Indians as from time to time they may be willing, with
the consent of the United States, to admit amongst them; and the
United States now solemnly agrees that no persons, except those
herein designated and authorized so to do, and except such officers,
agents, and employees of the government as may be authorized to
enter upon Indian reservations in discharge of duties enjoined by
law, shall ever be permitted to pass over, settle upon, or reside in
the territory described in this article, or in such territory as may
be added to this reservation for the use of said Indians, and
henceforth they will and do hereby relinquish all claims or right in
and to any portion of the United States or Territories, except such
as is embraced within the limits aforesaid, and except as
If it should appear from actual survey or other satisfactory
examination of said tract of land that it contains less than 160
acres of tillable land for each person who, at the time, may be
authorized to reside on it under the provisions of this treaty, and
a very considerable number of such persons shall be disposed to
commence cultivating the soil as farmers, the United States agrees
to set apart, for the use of said Indians, as herein provided, such
additional quantity of arable land, adjoining to said reservation,
or as near to the same as it can be obtained, as may be required to
provide the necessary amount.
The United States agrees, at its own proper expense, to construct,
at some place on the Missouri river, near the centre of said
reservation where timber and water may be convenient, the following
buildings, to wit, a warehouse, a store-room for the use of the
agent in storing goods belonging to the Indians, to cost not less
than $2,500; an agency building, for the residence of the agent, to
cost not exceeding $3,000; a residence for the physician, to cost
not more than $3,000; and five other buildings, for a carpenter,
farmer, blacksmith, miller, and engineer-each to cost not exceeding
$2,000; also, a school-house, or mission building, so soon as a
sufficient number of children can be induced by the agent to attend
school, which shall not cost exceeding $5,000.
States agrees further to cause to be erected on said reservation,
near the other buildings herein authorized, a good steam circular
saw-mill, with a grist-mill and shingle machine attached to the
same, to cost not exceeding $8,000.
The United States agrees that the agent for said Indians shall in
the future make his home at the agency building; that he shall
reside among them, and keep an office open at all times for the
purpose of prompt and diligent inquiry into such matters of
complaint by and against the Indians as may be presented for
investigation under the provisions of their treaty stipulations, as
also for the faithful discharge of other duties enjoined on him by
law. In all cases of depredation on person or property he shall
cause the evidence to be taken in writing and forwarded, together
with his findings, to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, whose
decision, subject to the revision of the Secretary of the Interior,
shall be binding on the parties to this treaty.
If any individual belonging to said tribes of Indians, or legally
incorporated with them, being the head of a family, shall desire to
commence farming, he shall have the privilege to select, in the
presence and with the assistance of the agent then in charge, a
tract of land within said reservation, not exceeding three hundred
and twenty acres in extent, which tract, when so selected,
certified, and recorded in the "Land Book" as herein directed, shall
cease to be held in common, but the same may be occupied and held in
the exclusive possession of the person selecting it, and of his
family, so long as he or they may continue to cultivate it.
over eighteen years of age, not being the head of a family, may in
like manner select and cause to be certified to him or her, for
purposes of cultivation, a quantity of land, not exceeding eighty
acres in extent, and thereupon be entitled to the exclusive
possession of the same as above directed.
tract of land so selected a certificate, containing a description
thereof and the name of the person selecting it, with a certificate
endorsed thereon that the same has been recorded, shall be delivered
to the party entitled to it, by the agent, after the same shall have
been recorded by him in a book to be kept in his office, subject to
inspection, which said book shall be known as the "Sioux Land Book."
President may, at any time, order a survey of the reservation, and,
when so surveyed, Congress shall provide for protecting the rights
of said settlers in their improvements, and may fix the character of
the title held by each. The United States may pass such laws on the
subject of alienation and descent of property between the Indians
and their descendants as may be thought proper. And it is further
stipulated that any male Indians over eighteen years of age, of any
band or tribe that is or shall hereafter become a party to this
treaty, who now is or who shall hereafter become a resident or
occupant of any reservation or territory not included in the tract
of country designated and described in this treaty for the permanent
home of the Indians, which is not mineral land, nor reserved by the
United States for special purposes other than Indian occupation, and
who shall have made improvements thereon of the value of two hundred
dollars or more, and continuously occupied the same as a homestead
for the term of three years, shall be entitled to receive from the
United States a patent for one hundred and sixty acres of land
including his said improvements, the same to be in the form of the
legal subdivisions of the surveys of the public lands. Upon
application in writing, sustained by the proof of two disinterested
witnesses, made to the register of the local land office when the
land sought to be entered is within a land district, and when the
tract sought to be entered is not in any land district, then upon
said application and proof being made to the Commissioner of the
General Land Office, and the right of such Indian or Indians to
enter such tract or tracts of land shall accrue and be perfect from
the date of his first improvements thereon, and shall continue as
long as be continues his residence and improvements and no longer.
And any Indian or Indians receiving a patent for land under the
foregoing provisions shall thereby and from thenceforth become and
be a citizen of the United States and be entitled to all the
privileges and immunities of such citizens, and shall, at the same
time, retain all his rights to benefits accruing to Indians under
In order to insure the civilization of the Indians entering into
this treaty, the necessity of education is admitted, especially of
such of them as are or may be settled on said agricultural
reservations, and they, therefore, pledge themselves to compel their
children, male and female, between the ages of six and sixteen
years, to attend school, and it is hereby made the duty of the agent
for said Indians to see that this stipulation is strictly complied
with; and the United States agrees that for every thirty children
between said ages, who can be induced or compelled to attend school,
a house shall be provided, and a teacher competent to teach the
elementary branches of an English education shall be furnished, who
will reside among said Indians and faithfully discharge his or her
duties as a teacher. The provisions of this article to continue for
not less than twenty years.
When the head of a family or lodge shall have selected lands and
received his certificate as above directed, and the agent shall be
satisfied that he intends in good faith to commence cultivating the
soil for a living, he shall be entitled to receive seeds and
agricultural implements for the first year, not exceeding in value
one hundred dollars, and for each succeeding year he shall continue
to farm, for a period of three years more, he shall be entitled to
receive seeds and implements as aforesaid, not exceeding in value
twenty-five dollars. And it is further stipulated that such persons
as commence farming shall receive instruction from the farmer herein
provided for, and whenever more than one hundred persons shall enter
upon the cultivation of the soil, a second blacksmith shall be
provided, with such iron, steel, and other material as may be
At any time after ten years fro the making of this treaty, the
United States shall have the privilege of withdrawing the physician,
farmer, blacksmith, carpenter, engineer, and miller herein provided
for, but in case of such withdrawal, an additional sum thereafter of
ten thousand dollars per annum shall be devoted to the education of
said Indians, and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall, upon
careful inquiry into their condition, make such rules and
regulations for the expenditure of said sums as will best promote
the education and moral improvement of said tribes.
In lieu of all sums of money or other annuities provided to be paid
to the Indians herein named under any treaty or treaties heretofore
made, the United States agrees to deliver at the agency house on the
reservation herein named, on or before the first day of August of
each year, for thirty years, the following articles, to wit:
male person over 14 years of age, a suit of good substantial woollen
clothing, consisting of coat, pantaloons, flannel shirt, hat, and a
pair of home-made socks.
female over 12 years of age, a flannel shirt, or the goods necessary
to make it, a pair of woollen hose, 12 yards of calico, and 12 yards
of cotton domestics.
For the boys
and girls under the ages named, such flannel and cotton goods as may
be needed to make each a suit as aforesaid, together with a pair of
woolen hose for each.
And in order
that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs may be able to estimate
properly for the articles herein named, it shall be the duty of the
agent each year to forward to him a full and exact census of the
Indians, on which the estimate from year to year can be based.
addition to the clothing herein named, the sum of $10 for each
person entitled to the beneficial effects of this treaty shall be
annually appropriated for a period of 30 years, while such persons
roam and hunt, and $20 for each person who engages in farming, to be
used by the Secretary of the Interior in the purchase of such
articles as from time to time the condition and necessities of the
Indians may indicate to be proper. And if within the 30 years, at
any time, it shall appear that the amount of money needed for
clothing, under this article, can be appropriated to better uses for
the Indians named herein, Congress may, by law, change the
appropriation to other purposes, but in no event shall the amount of
the appropriation be withdrawn or discontinued for the period named.
And the President shall annually detail an officer of the army to be
present and attest the delivery of all the goods herein named, to
the Indians, and he shall inspect and report on the quantity and
quality of the goods and the manner of their delivery. And it is
hereby expressly stipulated that each Indian over the age of four
years, who shall have removed to and settled permanently upon said
reservation, one pound of meat and one pound of flour per day,
provided the Indians cannot furnish their own subsistence at an
earlier date. And it is further stipulated that the United States
will furnish and deliver to each lodge of Indians or family of
persons legally incorporated with the, who shall remove to the
reservation herein described and commence farming, one good American
cow, and one good well-broken pair of American oxen within 60 days
after such lodge or family shall have so settled upon said
In consideration of the advantages and benefits conferred by this
treaty and the many pledges of friendship by the United States, the
tribes who are parties to this agreement hereby stipulate that they
will relinquish all right to occupy permanently the territory
reservations as herein defined, but yet reserve the right to hunt on
any lands north of North Platte, and on the Republican Fork of the
Smoky Hill river, so long as the buffalo may range thereon in such
numbers as to justify the chase. And they, the said Indians, further
they will withdraw all opposition to the construction of the
railroads now being built on the plains.
they will permit the peaceful construction of any railroad not
passing over their reservation as herein defined.
they will not attack any persons at home, or travelling, nor molest
or disturb any wagon trains, coaches, mules, or cattle belonging to
the people of the United S
tates, or to
persons friendly therewith.
will never capture, or carry off from the settlements, white women
will never kill or scalp white men, nor attempt to do them harm.
withdraw all pretence of opposition to the construction of the
railroad now being built along the Platte river and westward to the
Pacific ocean, and they will not in future object to the
construction of railroads, wagon roads, mail stations, or other
works of utility or necessity, which may be ordered or permitted by
the laws of the United States. But should such roads or other works
be constructed on the lands of their reservation, the government
will pay the tribe whatever amount of damage may be assessed by
three disinterested commissioners to be appointed by the President
for that purpose, one of the said commissioners to be a chief or
headman of the tribe.
agree to withdraw all opposition to the military posts or roads now
established south of the North Platte river, or that may be
established, not in violation of treaties heretofore made or
hereafter to be made with any of the Indian tribes.
No treaty for the cession of any portion or part of the reservation
herein described which may be held in common, shall be of any
validity or force as against the said Indians unless executed and
signed by at least three-fourths of all the adult male Indians
occupying or interested in the same, and no cession by the tribe
shall be understood or construed in such manner as to deprive,
without his consent, any individual member of the tribe of his
rights to any tract of land selected by him as provided in Article
VI of this treaty.
The United States hereby agrees to furnish annually to the Indians
the physician, teachers, carpenter, miller, engineer, farmer, and
blacksmiths, as herein contemplated, and that such appropriations
shall be made from time to time, on the estimate of the Secretary of
the Interior, as will be sufficient to employ such persons.
It is agreed that the sum of five hundred dollars annually for three
years from date shall be expended in presents to the ten persons of
said tribe who in the judgment of the agent may grow the most
valuable crops for the respective year.
The Indians herein named agree that when the agency house and other
buildings shall be constructed on the reservation named, they will
regard said reservation their permanent home, and they will make no
permanent settlement elsewhere; but they shall have the right,
subject to the conditions and modifications of this treaty, to hunt,
as stipulated in Article XI hereof.
The United States hereby agrees and stipulates that the country
north of the North Platte river and east of the summits of the Big
Horn mountains shall be held and considered to be unceded. Indian
territory, and also stipulates and agrees that no white person or
persons shall be permitted to settle upon or occupy any portion of
the same; or without the consent of the Indians, first had and
obtained, to pass through the same; and it is further agreed by the
United States, that within ninety days after the conclusion of peace
with all the bands of the Sioux nation, the military posts now
established in the territory in this article named shall be
abandoned, and that the road leading to them and by them to the
settlements in the Territory of Montana shall be closed.
It is hereby expressly understood and agreed by and between the
respective parties to this treaty that the execution of this treaty
and its ratification by the United States Senate shall have the
effect, and shall be construed as abrogating and annulling all
treaties and agreements heretofore entered into between the
respective parties hereto, so far as such treaties and agreements
obligate the United States to furnish and provide money, clothing,
or other articles of property to such Indians and bands of Indians
as become parties to this treaty, but no further.
of all which, we, the said commissioners, and we, the chiefs and
headmen of the Brule band of the Sioux nation, have hereunto set our
hands and seals at Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory, this twenty-ninth
day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and
W. T. SHERMAN,
WM. S. HARNEY,
Brevet Major General U.S.A.
JOHN B. SANBORN,
S. F. TAPPAN,
C. C. AUGUR,
Brevet Major General
ALFRED H. TERRY,
Brevet Major General U.S.A.
A. S. H. WHITE, Secretary.
the part of the Brule band of Sioux by the chiefs and headman whose
names are hereto annexed, they being thereunto duly authorized, at
Fort Laramie, D. T., the twenty-ninth day of April, in the year A.
his X mark, Iron Shell.
WAH-PAT-SHAH, his X mark, Red Leaf.
HAH-SAH-PAH, his X mark, Black Horn.
ZIN-TAH-GAH-LAT-WAH, his X mark, Spotted Tail.
ZIN-TAH-GKAH, his X mark, White Tail.
ME-WAH-TAH-NE-HO-SKAH, his X mark, Tall Man.
SHE-CHA-CHAT-KAH, his X mark, Bad Left Hand.
NO-MAH-NO-PAH, his X mark, Two and Two.
TAH-TONKA-SKAH, his X mark, White Bull.
CON-RA-WASHTA, his X mark, Pretty Coon.
HA-CAH-CAH-SHE-CHAH, his X mark, Bad Elk.
WA-HA-KA-ZAH-ISH-TAH, his X mark, Eye Lance.
MA-TO-HA-KE-TAH, his X mark, Bear that looks behind.
BELLA-TONKA-TONKA, his X mark, Big Partisan.
MAH-TO-HO-HONKA, his X mark, Swift Bear.
TO-WIS-NE, his X mark, Cold Place.
ISH-TAH-SKAH, his X mark, White Eye.
MA-TA-LOO-ZAH, his X mark, Fast Bear.
AS-HAH-HAH-NAH-SHE, his X mark, Standing Elk.
CAN-TE-TE-KI-YA, his X mark, The Brave Heart.
SHUNKA-SHATON, his X mark, Day Hawk.
TATANKA-WAKON, his X mark, Sacred Bull.
MAPIA SHATON, his X mark, Hawk Cloud.
MA-SHA-A-OW, his X mark, Stands and Comes.
SHON-KA-TON-KA, his X mark, Big Dog.
ASHTON S. H. WHITE, Secretary of Commission.
GEORGE B. WITHS, Phonographer to Commission.
GEO. H. HOLTZMAN.
JOHN D. HOWLAND.
JAMES C. O'CONNOR.
CHAR. E. GUERN, Interpreter.
LEON T. PALLARDY, Interpreter.
NICHOLAS JANIS, Interpreter.
the part of the Ogallalla band of Sioux by the chiefs and headmen
whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto duly
authorized, at Fort Laramie, the 25th day of May, in the year A. D.
TAH-SHUN-KA-CO-QUI-PAH, his mark, Man-afraid-of-his-horses.
SHA-TON-SKAH, his X mark, White Hawk.
SHA-TON-SAPAH, his X mark, Black Hawk.
EGA-MON-TON-KA-SAPAH, his X mark, Black Tiger
OH-WAH-SHE-CHA, his X mark, Bad Wound.
PAH-GEE, his X mark, Grass.
WAH-NON SAH-CHE-GEH, his X mark, Ghost Heart.
COMECH, his X mark, Crow.
OH-HE-TE-KAH, his X mark, The Brave.
TAH-TON-KAH-HE-YO-TA-KAH, his X mark, Sitting Bull.
SHON-KA-OH-WAH-MEN-YE, his X mark, Whirlwind Dog.
HA-KAH-KAH-TAH-MIECH, his X mark, Poor Elk.
WAM-BU-LEE-WAH-KON, his X mark, Medicine Eagle.
CHON-GAH-MA-HE-TO-HANS-KA, his X mark, High Wolf.
WAH-SECHUN-TA-SHUN-KAH, his X mark, American Horse.
MAH-KAH-MAH-HA-MAK-NEAR, his X mark, Man that walks under the
MAH-TO-TOW-PAH, his X mark, Four Bears.
MA-TO-WEE-SHA-KTA, his X mark, One that kills the bear.
OH-TAH-KEE-TOKA-WEE-CHAKTA, his X mark, One that kills in a hard
TAH-TON-KAH-TA-MIECH, his X mark, The Poor Bull.
OH-HUNS-EE-GA-NON-SKEN, his X mark, Mad Shade.
SHAH-TON-OH-NAH-OM-MINNE-NE-OH-MINNE, his X mark, Whirling hawk.
MAH-TO-CHUN-KA-OH, his X mark, Bear's Back.
CHE-TON-WEE-KOH, his X mark, Fool Hawk.
WAH-HOH-KE-ZA-AH-HAH, his X mark,
EH-TON-KAH, his X mark, Big Mouth.
MA-PAH-CHE-TAH, his X mark, Bad Hand.
WAH-KE-YUN-SHAH, his X mark, Red Thunder.
WAK-SAH, his X mark, One that Cuts Off.
CHAH-NOM-QUI-YAH, his X mark, One that Presents the Pipe.
WAH-KE-KE-YAN-PUH-TAH, his X mark, Fire Thunder.
MAH-TO-NONK-PAH-ZE, his X mark, Bear with Yellow Ears.
CON-REE-TEH-KA, his X mark, The Little Crow.
HE-HUP-PAH-TOH, his X mark, The Blue War Club.
SHON-KEE-TOH, his X mark, The Blue Horse.
WAM-BALLA-OH-CONQUO, his X mark, Quick Eagle.
TA-TONKA-SUPPA, his X mark, Black Bull.
MOH-TOH-HA-SHE-NA, his X mark, The Bear Hide.
S. E. WARD.
JAS. C. O'CONNOR.
J. M. SHERWOOD.
W. C. SLICER.
H. M. MATHEWS.
NICHOLAS JANIS, Interpreter.
LEFROY JOTT, Interpreter.
ANTOINE JANIS, Interpreter.
the part of the Minneconjou band of Sioux by the chiefs and headmen
whose names are hereunto subscribed, they being thereunto duly
his X mark, One Horn.
OH-PON-AH-TAH-E-MANNE, his X mark, The Elk that Bellows Walking.
HEH-HO-LAH-ZEH-CHA-SKAH, his X mark, Young White Bull.
WAH-CHAH-CHUM-KAH-COH-KEEPAH, his X mark, One that is Afraid of
HE-HON-NE-SHAKTA, his X mark, The Old Owl.
MOC-PE-A-TOH, his X mark, Blue Cloud.
OH-PONG-GE-LE-SKAH, his X mark, Spotted Elk.
TAH-TONK-KA-HON-KE-SCHUE, his X mark, Slow bull.
SHONK-A-NEE-SHAH-SHAH-ATAH-PE, his X mark, The Dog Chief.
MA-TO-TAH-TA-TONK-KA, his X mark, Bull Bear.
WOM-BEH-LE-TON-KAH, his X mark, The Big Eagle.
MATOH, EH-SCHNE-LAH, his X mark, The Lone Bear.
MA-TOH-OH-HE-TO-KEH, his X mark, The Brave Bear.
EH-CHE-MA-KEH, his X mark, The Runner.
TI-KI-YA, his X mark, The Hard.
HE-MA-ZA, his X mark, Iron Horn.
JAS. C O'CONNOR,
WM. D. BROWN,
the part of the Yanctonais band of Sioux by the chiefs and headmen
whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto duly
MAH-TO-NON-PAH, his X mark, Two Bears.
MA-TO-HNA-SKIN-YA, his X mark, Mad Bear.
HE-O-PU-ZA, his X mark, Louzy.
AH-KE-CHE-TAH-CHE-KA-DAN, his X mark, Little Soldier.
MAH-TO-E-TAN-CHAN, his X mark, Chief Bear.
CU-WI-TO-WIA, his X mark, Rotten Stomach.
SKUN-KA-WE-TKO, his X mark, Fool Dog.
ISH-TA-SAP-PAH, his X mark, Black Eye.
IH-TAN-CHAN, his X mark, The Chief.
I-A-WI-CA-KA, his X mark, The One who Tells the Truth.
AH-KE-CHE-TAH, his X mark, The Soldier.
TA-SHI-NA-GI, his X mark, Yellow Robe.
NAH-PE-TON-KA, his X mark, Big Hand.
CHAN-TEE-WE-KTO, his X mark, Fool Heart.
HOH-GAN-SAH-PA, his X mark, Black Catfish.
MAH-TO-WAH-KAN, his X mark, Medicine Bear.
SHUN-KA-KAN-SHA, his X mark, Red Horse.
WAN-RODE, his X mark, The Eagle.
CAN-HPI-SA-PA, his X mark, Black Tomahawk.
WAR-HE-LE-RE, his X mark, Yellow Eagle.
CHA-TON-CHE-CA, his X mark, Small Hawk, or Long Fare.
SHU-GER-MON-E-TOO-HA-SKA, his X mark, Fall Wolf.
MA-TO-U-TAH-KAH, his X mark, Sitting Bear.
HI-HA-CAH-GE-NA-SKENE, his X mark, Mad Elk.
LITTLE CHIEF, his X mark.
TALL BEAR, his X mark.
TOP MAN, his X mark.
NEVA, his X mark.
THE WOUNDED BEAR, his X mark.
WHIRLWIND, his X mark.
THE FOX, his X mark.
THE DOG BIG MOUTH, his X mark.
SPOTTED WOLF, his X mark.
SORREL HORSE, his X mark.
BLACK COAL, his X mark.
BIG WOLF, his X mark.
KNOCK-KNEE, his X mark.
BLACK CROW, his X mark.
THE LONE OLD MAN, his X mark.
PAUL, his X mark.
BLACK BULL, his X mark.
BIG TRACK, his X mark.
THE FOOT, his X mark.
BLACK WHITE, his X mark.
YELLOW HAIR, his X mark.
LITTLE SHIELD, his X mark.
BLACK BEAR, his X mark.
WOLF MOCASSIN, his X mark.
BIG ROBE, his X mark.
WOLF CHIEF, his X mark.
ROBERT P. MCKIBBIN,
Captain 4th Infantry, and Bvt. Lieut. Col. U. S. A.,
Commanding Fort Laramie.
WM. H. POWELL,
Brevet Major, Captain 4th Infantry.
HENRY W. PATTERSON,
Captain 4th Infantry.
THEO E. TRUE,
Second Lieutenant 4th Infantry.
W. G. BULLOCK.
FORT LARAMIE, WYOMING TERRITORY
November 6, 1868.
MAH-PI-AH-LU-TAH, his X mark, Red Cloud.
WA-KI-AH-WE-CHA-SHAH, his X mark, Thunder Man.
MA-ZAH-ZAH-GEH, his X mark, Iron Cane.
WA-UMBLE-WHY-WA-KA-TUYAH, his X mark, High Eagle.
KO-KE-PAH, his X mark, Man Afraid.
WA-KI-AH-WA-KOU-AH, his X mark, Thunder Flying Running.
W. MCE. DYE,
Brevet Colonel U. S. Army,
A. B. CAIN,
Captain 4th Infantry, Brevet Major U. S. Army.
ROBT. P. MCKIBBIN,
Captain 4th Infantry, Bvt. Lieut. Col. U. S. Army.
Captain 4th Infantry.
G. L. LUHN,
First Lieutenant 4th Infantry, Bvt. Capt. U. S. Army.
H. C. SLOAN,
Second Lieutenant 4th Infantry.
Transcription courtesy of the
at Yale Law School.